Expectancy theory €“ by Victor Vroom

This theory argues that motivation depends on a person€™s expectations about his or her ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards. The theory is not concerned with identifying types of needs but with the thinking process that persons use to achieve rewards. It is based on the relationship among effort, performance and value placed on outcomes associated with high performance.

The strength of a person€™s tendency to act in a certain manner depends on the strength of the expectancy that the act will be followed by a given consequence. No matter which choices individuals make, the outcome of those choices, can be viewed as a cognitive process or learned habits of expectancy. Teachers can capitalise on the expectancy theory by stating the outcome or consequences of student€™s choices to study hard or not to study at all.