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Harvard Referencing

Harvard Referencing

What is Harvard referencing – is a system used in the academic community where by students/ individuals reference where they got the source of the information, by mentioning the name of the author, book, place of publication and website and date of publication. This is done to acknowledge work of another author and to avoid plagiarism.

Plagiarism is known as failure to acknowledge someone’s work and claiming that it your work. This is taken as an academic misconduct and is treated as a serious offence.

This document will help you to learn how to write references in your work.

What are Bibliography, References and Citations?

Bibliography – bibliography is a list of sources you have read but haven’t cited in the main text of your assignment. This list is usually placed at the end of your assignment after the referencing section. However a bibliography is only to be used alongside your reference if you are required to.

Referencing list format

All the sources that you mentioned in the main text, should be listed alphabetically also in the correct format as shown above.

If you have two or more authors with same surname you must list them in an alphabetical order according to the author’s initials.

Example

Collins, A. C. (2004) Management and

Communication. 4th ed., Harlow:

Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Collins, K. C. (2004) ‘Samsung: why is does the function matter.’ Phone World, 15(30)p.33.

If you are using a single author, whereby their surname is the same but different year of publication is different, your sources should be listed in a chronological order putting the earliest publication first.

Example

Mephis, L. (2007) design skills: enhancing art decoration. Oxford: Mark Moore

Mephis, L. (2011) design handbook. 4th ed., Oxford: Mark Moore.

Citations rules

When citing you will need to include the author’s surname and year of publication,

In some cases the authors name might not be included therefore you can use the organisation’s name instead

If the date is not included state the words: no date instead of the year.

An example above is shown for complex citations

One author

Author’s surname or organisation’s name and the publication year

Examples

It is stated by Moore (2007) that… although it shows (Art deco Association, 2011)

According the Art world(no date)……

Two authors

You must include both or the author’s surnames o two organisations’ names and publication year

An example has been shown above

William and Brown (2000) agree that…

Three authors or more Authors:

Surnames of the first author followed by et al. publication year.

Example

It believed that Greens et al. (2005)…..

Direct Quote: General Rules

When citing a direct quit you should include the page number or if it’s online state ‘online’.

Examples of more complex quotes are shown above

You should include surname/s of author/s and publication year followed by page number when citing a direct quote as shown above

When reviewing other peoples work it is important to use critical thinking approach…’ (Collins 2002:27).

Direct quotes from online sources

Many sources found online have no page numbers, when using a direct quote from online you should state that the information was found online. An example of this is shown above

Example

According to the business and financial regulatory (no date)(online) the financial stocks are rising …..’

Citing and referencing specific sources

Books

PLEASE NOTE: Electronic books found online are (not via ebook readers) are to be referenced in the same way as a printed copy of a book. The reason why it should be done this way is that an ebook is a scanned version of the original print book, meaning the information in the book is the same but different format( softcopy and hardcopy)

Year of publication and reprints

The publication year, refers to the very first year when the book was published and not the reprint. If you are ever presented with a lit of years, you should select the year the book was published

Example

First published 1990, reprinted 1990, 1991, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1997(twice) 1998

Therefore looking at this list you choose 1990 as the year of publication the reason why 1990 should be choose is that reprinted book have the same information at the first year of publication.

Reprints of old text with new publishers

Reprinted books by new publisher (not the original publisher) should be date when it was reprinted with the new publisher. It should also be recorded alongside with the original publication date. This is because someone might be searching for the edition you have used can find it and also being clear about the original date.

Example

Mathews, B.G (1981, reprinted 1998) Social needs: meeting social needs. Lancashire:Constable

Book citation

Key points

If you are citing a book with no edition leave it out or if it’s listed as a 1st edition leave it out.

If your citing includes et al. you should include a list authors in your reference list

Place of publication, if they is a number of location listed, you select the first location because it is where the book was first published.

Referencing an edited book you should include the editors surname/s instead of author, you should indicate (ed.) or (eds) after the surnames and initial/s

Published book should include – Author’s or editor’s surname/s, Initial/s. (ed/s.) (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.

Example

Association of Illustrators. (2011) Images 35: best of British illustration 2011. London: Association of Illustrators.

Burrows, A., Parsons, A., Price, G. and Pilling G. (2009) Chemistry3: introducing inorganic, organic and physical chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. (1993) How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cottrell, S. (2011) Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument. 2nd ed., Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian.

Hargie, O. (ed.) (2006) The handbook of communication skills. 3rd ed.,London: Routledge.

Website referencing

Website reference that includes an authors name should include the writers name and organasition’s or site where the information was found and include the URL

For example

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title of page. Name of organisation. [Online]

[Date accessed] URL

Referencing an online organisation

Name of organisation. (Year of publication) Title of page. [Online] [Date accessed]

URL

Journal referencing

When referencing a website you should include the following

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) ‘Title of journal article.’ Title of journal, Volume

number, Issue number, first and last page numbers of whole journal article

Electronic journals are referenced the same way as a hardcopy.